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    优乐体育网址ByLiuShijin,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo237,2011HowlongcanChinamaintainitsgrowthmomentumafterexperiencinga30-year-longfastgrowthToanswerthisquestion,thefirstthi,,:whetherChinawillfallintotheso-called"middleincometrap".WhenChina"spercapitaGDPexceeds4,000dollarsatmarketexchangerateandwhenthecountryfacesdiversecontradictionsandchallenges,therearegrowingconcernsanddiscussionsonwhetherChinawillfallintothe"middle-levelincometrap".ItisagainstthisbackgroundthattheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)haslaunchedaresearchprojectentitled"SurmountingtheMiddle-LevelIncomeTrap".Whilereviewingthemajorviewsintheresearchfindings,,China",dicatorsrelatedtodozensofcountriesand,,whichrequiredpatience,seriousnessandprofessionalismandforwhichs,,shouldthedollaratcurrentpriceorthepurchasingpowerparitybeselectedEv,weselectedthelong-termeconomicgrowthdataofvariouscountriesdevelopedbyrenownedeconomichistorianAngusMad,thisdatasetcoversawidescopeand,thisdatasethasalsoprovent"SqueezedGrowth"Inthecourseofdataanalysis,wecarriedouvesuccessivelyenteredtheprocessofindustrialization.(1)Britain,theUnitedStatesandothercountriesthatdevelopedfirstandhavebeenontheforefrontoftechnology.(2)Thelate-comingEuropeancountriesthathavesuccessfullycaughtupwithtechnologically-frontiercountries.(3)TheemergingindustrializedcountriesandregionsinEastAsiathathavetappedlatecomeradvantages,realizedlong-termrapiddevelopmentandscoredsomeprogressininnovationdriving.(4)TheLatinAmericancountriesandsimilarSoutheastAsiancountriesthathadlongpursuedanimportsubstitutionstrategy,createdgrowthmiraclesbutlaterfallenintothe"middle-levelincometrap".(5)TheformerSovietUnionandEastEuropeancountriesthathadlongstucktoplannedeconomy,realizedrapidgrowthandalsooncefallenintothe"middle-levelincometrap".Thehistoryoftheabovecategoriesofcountriesandregionsinindustrialgrowthindicatesthatsomearepioneersandsomearelatecomersindifferentperiodsandthatsomelatecomersaresuccessful,"typicalfacts"insteadof"regularfacts"isthatwehaveobservedtherepeatabilityofthesefactsbutwearenotclearabouttheinhe"typicalfacts",wehavenoticedthefactofthe"squeezedgrowth",thelate-comingcountriesaccomplishedroughlythesame"workload",,inaccomplishingthesameeconomicgrowthtask,BritainandtheUnitedStatesusedabout100years,Japanused70years,SouthKoreaandotherEastAsianeconomiesused50years,andChina(orChina"sdevelopedareas)"squeezedgrowth""pressure""squeezedgrowth"arefullyreleased,,suchas"economictakeoff".Butnowweshouldfocusourattentionongrowthslowdownafterthefastgrowthcomestoaterminal,namelytheissueof"economicslowdown",andthecompletedescriptionandinterpretationoftheprocessofthe"squeezed",wehavenoticed"middle-levelincometrap".opeancountries,whichmostlywitnesseddrasticgrowthslowdowninthe1970s,canberegardedasanothertypeofcountriesfallingintothe"middle-levelincometrap".henplannedecon,growt"successfullychasing",Japan,,growthslowdownisasignofaneconomythathassuccessfullygonethroughtheper,,theyallappearedafteraperiodoffastgrowth(oragoldenperiodofgrowth).,thegrowthslowdownofthosefallingintothe"middle-levelincometrap"appearedinLatinAmericancountrieswhentheirpercapitaincomereached4,000~6,000internationaldollarsandintheformerSovietUnionandEastEuropeancountrieswhentheirpercapitaincomereached5,000~7,"successfulchasers",thegrowthslowdownappearedwhentheirpercapitaincomereachedabout11,"lossofspeed"whentheystillhadpotentialsforfastgrowth,thelatterexperienceditaftertheirpotentialsforf,theeconomiesfallingintothe"middle-levelincometrap",bothLatinAmericancountriesandtheformerSovietUnionandEastEuropeancountries,allhadsomemajordefectsintheirsystems,strategiesandpoliciesforindustrialization,suchastheclosedimportsubstitutionstrategyadoptedbyLatinAmericancountriesandthesystemofplanzation,theireco"successfulchasers"weresuccessful,,wedevelopeda"six-factor"modelandattemptedtogiveapreliminarydescriptionandinterpretationoftheseproblems.Figure1GrowthRateofOutputValueoftheEnterprisesaboveDesignatedScaleintheFirstSevenMonthsof2008(atcurrentprice)dium-sizedenterprises,buttheirassets-profitratiosweresimilarInthefirstfivemonthsof2008,thesales-profitratio(totalprofit/salesrevenue)%,%,theirassets-profitratio(totalprofit/totalassets),%%.Afterthesectorsofoilprocessing,electricityandwatersubjecttostrictpricecontrolareexcluded,%%thanthoseoflargeandmedium-sizedenterprisesInthefirstfivemonths,,%,,%andmedium-sizedenterprisesInthefirstfivemonths,Chinahadatotal343,%ofthe35,200largeandmedium-sizedenterprisessufferedloss,%ofthe308,,privateandotherenterprisesgrewfasterIntermsoftotaloutputvalue,,%HongKong,MacaoandTaiwan,%,%,bothprivateenterprisesandotherenterprisespostedafairlyfastgrowth,%%(%)gKong,%,atthesameleveloftheaveragegrowthrateofallindustrialenterprises.

    优乐体育网址Third,theChineseeconomybeganagradualintegrationwiththeworldeconomyafterChineseChairmanMaoZedongandAmericanPresidentRichardNixonshookpoliti,theformerEastEuropeanandSovietcountriesandsomecountriesinLatinAmerica,thewaveofeconomicinteg,andmadeitpossibleforglobaleconomicdevelopmenttofullyenjoythe"dividendofglobalization"andthe"dividendofpopulation".Asaresult,,thefloatingexchangeratesystemandtheopportunityarisingfromtheeconomicgrowthcycleinthenewroundofglobalization,donceagainfloodedtheworldwi,,rosefromUS$$,$100trillionin2002toUS$516trillionin2007,agrowthofmorethanfivefolds.ChenDaofuPrivateequityinvestment,whichiscalledPE(PrivateEquity)forshort,referstoakindofinvestmentintonon-listedequityornon-publiclytradedequity(privateequity)feringtoraisefundsfromnon-specifiedpublic,ortakeprivateplacement(non-publicoffering)toraisefundsfromspecificgroup,especial,,inviewofliquidity,transparencyandraisingfunds,,privateequityinvestmentfundsgenerall,privateequityinvestmentfundsincludeventurecapitalinvestment,mergersacquisitions,growthfunds,realestate,,withtheeverboominginternationalPEmarketandhugereturnsfromindividualinvestmentaswellastheappreciationofChinasstockmarketandrealestatevalue,thedemandforcorporaterestructuringand,sPEmarketIn2001and2002,thenumberoflocalventurecapital(VC)institutionsinChinareachedabout300,,thenumberofforeign-investedventurecapitalinstitutionswasabout50annually,,thereisahugegapbetweentheamount,the130localventurecapitalinstitutionsonlyheldaboutUS$470million,butthe45foreign-investedventurecapitalinstitutionsheldUS$,China,localventurecapitalinstitutionsinvestedin168companiesandinvestedUS$190million,butforeign-investedonesinvestedin51companieswithaninvestmentofUS$,localventurecapitalinvestedin83companies,whileforeign-investedonesinvestedin126companies,sarenotobviousandstillremainatthelevelofUS$160million,however,foreign-investedventurecapitalinvestmenthadalreadyreachedUS$730million,nearlyfivetimesthatofthelocalone,theabsolutesuperio,atotalof40privateequityfundswereestablishedinChinesemainlandandUS$,another17PEtobeinvestedinChinamainlandcompletedfund-raisingofUS$;inthesecondquarter,therewere15PEthatcouldmakeinvestmentinmainlandChinaandcompletedfund-raisingwithatotalofUS$alapproachofChina,therehavebeen16IPOwithdrawalcasesamong17PEones,%.Inthefirstquarterof2007,,therewere19withdrawaltransactions,,enterpriseswithdrawingthroughIPOaccountedfor80%,79%,72%,68%and64%,scurrentPEfocusedmoreonthepreliminarylistingstage,,enterprises,suchasMengniu,LiNing,eBay,Dangdang,SINA,Shengda,AsiaInfo,STPandBelle,chooseoverseasmarket(includingHongKong),bytheendof2006,thenumberofChineseenterpriseslistedoverseashadreachedmorethan400,ofwhichenterpriseslistedbyred-chipmodetakeupover80%.Amongthem,in2005,atotalof81companiesgotlistedoverseas,raisingUS$,atotalof86companiesgotlistedoverseas,raisingUS$,drivenbygoodperformanceofinternationalanddomesticPE,capitaltrustscheme,andtheywillcompetemorepositivelyinPEmarketespeciallyduetothefactthattherecent200contractswererevisedtobequalifiedinstitutionalinvestorswithoutlimitationonnumberandlessthan50qualifiednaturalpersons,meanwhile,,secu,expect“ViewsoftheStateCouncilontheReformandDevelopmentofInsuranceIndustry”,insurancecompaniesgotqualifiedfor“carryingoutpilotprojectsconcerninginsurancefundsinvestmentinpropertyassetsandventurecapitalenterprises”.AlthoughtheInsuranceRegulatoryCommissionisstillrelativelycautiousonthisissue,,suchasSino-SwissPartnershipFund,ASEAN-ChinaInvestmentFundandSino-BelgianEquityDirectInvestmentFund,BohaiSeaIndustryInvestmentFund,,variousfinancialinstitutionsinChina,beingaseitheradministratorsorfundholders,ullplayInJanuary2007,approvedbytheStateCouncil,BohaiSeaIndustryInvestmentFundandBohaiSeaIndustryInvestmentFundManagementCo.,an,,theinitiativeofgovernmentsofvariousregionsarefullymobilized,,fourindustryfundsincludingGuangdongNuclearPowerFund,ShanxiEnergyFund,ShanghaiFinancialFundandSichuanMianyangHi-techFund,becamethesecondpiloti,thereemergedmorePEinvestmentinChinastraditionalsectors,thus,bstaclesforPEdevelopmentTheamendedPartnershipBusinessLawwhichwas,theyincluderegulationsoflimitedpartnershipandlimitedliabilitypartnership;secondly,theyallowlegalpersonsorotherorganizationstobepartners;thirdly,theymakeclearthecollectionrulesforpartnershipincometax,whic,Chinasfirstventurecapitalenterpriseorganizedintheformoflimitedpartnership,SouthSeaGrowthVentureCapitalLimitedPartnershipEnterprise,"TheDevelopmentPlanforInnovativeEnterprises”%....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

    Thef,,%,yearonyear,,,%,;,%,,,%yearonyear;,%.Byindustry,theinvestmentintheprimary,%,%%,,%yearonyear;theinvestment,%;theinvestmentinoilandgasexploitingindustriesreached96billionyuan,%;,%;theinves,%;theinvestmentintheexcavating,smelting,,%;andtheinvestmentintheexcavating,smelting,,%.Byregion,urbaninvestmentofChina%,%%.Theinvestmentininfrastructurefacilities(exclusiveofelectricpower)%,%,%andtheinvestmentinwaterconservancy,%;theinvestmentinpublichealth,%;andtheinvestmentincultural,%.天上人间体育注册ByLiuShijin,ZhangJunkuo,HouYongzhiZhuoXian,TaskForceon"ChinasLevelofDevelopmentatthePresentStage",LeadingPartyGroupDepartmentofDevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo71,2011Theterm"developingcountry"referstoacountrythathasrelativelylowlevelsofeconomicandsocialdevelopmentandpeopleslivingstandardandisstillintheprocessoftransfor,itseconomyhasbeengrowingatanaverageannualrateofnearly10%anditstremendousachievemenllyacceptablepercapitadevelopmeeaquestionintheworldWhyhavesomeorganizationsandindividualsoftenquestionedChinas"developingcountry"statusconsciouslyorunconsciouslyandevenaskedChinatoassumeinternationalresponsibilitiesasadevelopedcountryThelateststatisticaldataindicatethatintermsofthegrossdomesticproduct(GDP),ChinaovertookJapanin2010tobecometheworld,somepeoplesuggestedChinaslabelsas"adevelopingcountryandanemergingmarket",weneedtoexplainwhyChinaremainsadevelopingcountryandatthesametimestudywhyChinas"developingcountry"ionalcommunitysmisunderstandingofthepresentstageofChinaseconomicdevelopmentbutalsohelpuscorrectlyunderstanlityThatChinasPerCapitaLevelsAreLowThetruelevelofacountrysdevelopmentismainlymeasuredbyitspercapitalevels,especiallyinthe30yearsafterChinabeganreformandopeningup,thecountry,Chinaisalreadytheworld,thelevelofChina,ChinaspercapitaGDPwasonly3,744dollarsin2009,whichwaslessthanhalfoftheworldaveragelevelof8,(46,000dollars),Japan(39,000dollars),Chinaspercapitapowerconsumptionin2007was2,332KWHs,rican(13,000KWHs).Alsoin2007,autopossessionbyper1,sautopossessionbyper1,ualityofthepeople,thelowerthelivingstandardis,sEngleCoefficientisfarhigherthanthatofdevelopedcountries(Table1).ThisindicatesthattheChinesestillhavetouseaconsiderableproportionoftheirspendingtomeettheirfood,,theyspendmuchlessoncultural,health,,whichisabasiclivingindicator,Chinas89%levelisnotonlyfarlowerthanindevelopedcountriesbutalsolowerthaninBrazil,SouthAfricaandotherdevelopingcountries(Table1).Sointermsoflivingstandard,outChinasGDPFirst,thesepeopledonotreallycareint,buttheytakethemmoreasapopeople,theywouldnotignorethepercapitaindicatorsthatcanbestreflectthestateofthelifeanddevelopmentoftheChinesepeopleandshouldnotchallengeChinas"developingcountry"statusbycitingChinasGDPratherthanitspercapitaindicators.

    ByLiaoYingminRenXingzhou,InstituteofMarketEconomy,theDRCResearchReportNo109,(1)TherealestatemarketbottomsoutFromJanuarytoAugust2009,theareaofnationwidesoldnewly-builtcommercialhousingwas494,160,000m2,%overthesameperiodofthepreviousyear,,%,theareaofnationwidesoldcommercialhousingofthefirstquarterwas113,000,000m2,%lativelywell,whichshowspartofac,however,thecommercialhousingtransactionamountsawaparoxysmalincrease,andthetransactionamountofsomelarge-sizedandmedium-sizedhouseswithrelativelyhightotalpriceincreasedrapidly,,000,000m2(thatofJunewas94,650,000m2),(Table1).Atthesametime,ndShanghaiincreasedrespectivelyby186%and187%overthepreviousyear,higherthantheleveloftheyear2008;,especiallyinSeptember,housingtransactionamountofsomebigcitieslikeBeijingandShanghaidecreasedasdeflationpolicylikehighRegions(2009)优乐体育网址

    优乐体育网址ByWangHui,GeneralOfficeofDRC,andJiaTaoWangJicheng,EnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCResearchReportNo82,2012Currently,Chinaspolicytowardsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises(SMEs)hasscoredsomesuccessinrelievingburdensandovercomingdifficulties,includingreductionoftaxesandfees,subsidygranting,easingoffinancialstraitsandimprovementofbusinessenvironments,,skilltrainingandbusinessstartuptraining,heirmanagementofhumanresourcesandraisetheirmanagementlevels,butalsoanimportantchannelforimprovingtheskilltrainingandvocationaleducationsystem,nurturingmanagementpersonnelandimprovingworkersqualities,whichareofvitalimportancetoSMEsinenhancingtheirabilitiesforexistence,,trainingservicestoSMEsareofspecialstrategicimportancetotheimplementationofthestrategyofreinvigoratingChinathroughhumanresourcedevelopment,theconstructionofChinaintoaninnovation-orientedcountry,theaccelerationofthedevelopmentofburgeoningserviceindustries,theconstructionofharmoniousindustrialrelationsandthebo,SMEsrrvicesystemforSMEsisanimportantmeansforimprovingthedevelopainingservicesystemforSMEsisacompletesystemwhichincludesSMEsasdemanders,traininginstitutionsassuppliers,variouskindsoftrainingorganizationssuchasskilledworkersschools,aswellasgovernmentservicedepartments(institutions)ascoordinatorsforSMEsandrelevantpolicyresources,,withthegradualimprovementofpoliciestowardSMEsandinneedoftheenterpriserestructuringandupgradingandmarketcompetition,rapidprogresshasbeenmadeinChinainthegrowthoftrainingservicestoSMEs,andabusinessstartupandtrainingservicesystemhastakenshapeinitiallyunderthepositiveguidanceofboththeCentralGovernmentandthelocalgovernments,withthewideparticipationbysocializedtrainingentitiesaswellasthesoundinteractionbetweenthegovernmentandthemarket,coveringskilltraining,,over11millionSMEshaveregisteredinChina,withtheself-employedinexcessof34million,mostofwhicharesmallinscale,,agrowingnumberofenterpriseshavefullycometorealizethatpersonneltrainingcanhelprealizemanagementenhancement,technologicalprogressandimprovementofeffectivenes(PrivateEnterprises)conductedbythecityofWuxiindicatesthatin201082%ofsurveyedenterprisesintendedtogivevocationaltrainingtotheiremployeesandthepercentageofsuchenterprisesreached98%,businessmanagement,marketingandprofessionalskillsaccountedfor47%,38%and22%,,by2010,thesizeofthebusinessmanagementandtrainingservicemarkethadreachedtheamountof75billionyuanorsoinChinaandmaintainedanaverageannualgrowthof25%oraboveonthewhole,%,particularlyformanagementtrainingandaredesiroustotaptheirmanagementpotentials,enhancetheirmanageme,theycanbedividedintothreetypes:first,trainingcompanieswithcorporatecapacities,whicharemarket-orientedandprovidecommercialtrainingservices;second,institutions,suchasskilledworkersschoolsandprofessionalschools,whichareanimportantintegralpartofChinasvocationaleducationsystemandaremarket-orientedandprovidecommercialtrainingservices;andthird,non-profittraininginstitutionssetupb,trainingcompanies,focusedmainlyonmanagementtraining,canprobefullyintoenterprisedemandandarebettermarket-adaptedand,byadoptingsuchservicepatternsasinternaltraining,openclasses,distanceeducationandjudgmentandconsultationinaflexibleway,canbettermeetthepersonalizeddemandsofenterprises,,000managementtrainingcompaniesinChina,rt,thetraininginstitutions,suchasskilledworkersschools,havearelativelygoodnumberofteachersandarecenteredonskilltraining,tupforboostingemploymentandmeetinglocaldemandforspecifichard-sough,therehadbeen2,988skilledworkers;therehadbeen3,192jobtrainingcentersand20,000privately-runtraininginstitutions,,thenumberofsuchinstitutionshadreached525,andnearly1/3oftheprovinces,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitieshavepreliminarilysetupservicesystemsatprovincial,,dependentontheirresourcesanddiplomaeducation,manycollegesanduniversitiesandresearchinstitutionsprovidetrainingservicesmainlyforentrepreneursofSMEsandforhighermanagementpersonneland,suchservicesare,inessence,animportantro,theCentralGovernmentandthelocalg,manyplaceshaveunveiledpersonnelplansandpoliciesondevelopmentofSMEsandhavetakeninnovationmethods,rationalizingofmechanismsandenla,theCentralGovernmentandlocalgovernmentshavegivensomebasicandnon-profittrainingactivities,suchastheGalaxyTrainingProgrambytheCentralGovernment,ExpertiseUpdatingProgramandtheManagementUpgradingPlanforSMEs,stypesofentrepreneurs,andShenzhenhascarriedouttrainingofleadingtal,Chinahas,atpresent,initiallyformedthetrainingservicesystemforSMEs,reflectingthepositiveresultsachievedinrecentyearsthroughtheimplementati,hugeandurgenttrainingdemandfromSMEshasbeenarealisticbasis,supportandinputfromtheCentralGovernmentandthelocalgovernmentshavebeenanimportantguarantee,andtheunremittingmodelinnovationbytraininginstitutionsparticularlybymarket-orientedtrainingenterpriseshasbeenthesourceofvitality.

    ByXiangAnbo,ResearchTeamon"StudyofGovernment-CorporateRelationsofStrategicEmergingIndustries",theEnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCResearchReportNo6,2011TheoverallperformanceofChinasInternetofThingsisgood,,enterprisesdonothavematurecommercialmodels,,,governmentandenterprisesshouldworktogethertocultivatemassmarketdemand,developkeytechnologies,establishtechnologyandapplicationstandards,buildsupportinginfrastructures,protectinformationsecurityandprivacy,andpromotecooperationbetweenindustry-relatedregulatorydepartmentsandcoordinationbetweenenterprises,,improvinggovernment-corporaterelationsandformingadevelopmentpatternthatfeaturesgovernmentpromotion,corporateinitiativeandgovernment-cor,countriesaroundtheworldpaymuchattentionto,astheInternetofThingsofferscomprehensiveperception,reliabletransmissionandintelligenthandling,itcanensurehumanbeingstohaveatechnologicalbasisforthereal-timecontrol,,theInternetofThingscanberegardedasapenetrationoftheInternetintorealeconomy,whoseindustrialchainincorporatesmoreupstreamanddownstreamparticipantsandwidensth,,theInternetofThingsisahighlandforthefuturecompetitionbetweenvariouscountriesinthefiel,theInternetofThingsisalsoabosnewindustrializationprocessanericaninthefieldofInternetofThingsapplicationresearches,ry,andcitieslikeBeijing,Shanghai,,severalInternetofThingsindustrialalliancesarebeingformedinChina,andth,therelevantauthoritiesshouldpaymuchattention,observethelawsofindustrialandtechnologicaldevelopment,associatedwithChinasInternetofThingsdevelopmentInthecourseofrapiddevelopmentofInternetofThings,theenterprisesinChinaalsofacesomechallenges,whichcannsInternetofThingsindustryisstillintheinitial,inadequateunderstandingandhighapplicationc,Chinashouldchangeitsoldmindsetandpractice,giveequalemphasistobothdemandandsupplyends,tapthepotentialoftheChinesemarket,andcultivatsthathavepracticalfunctionsandcancreatevalues,andtoinnovatecommercialmodelssothattheInternetofThingsenterprisesinChinacanboostthe,theInternetofThingsasastrategicemergingindustryhasthe,whenthereisnoeffectiveinterest-sharingmechanism,Internetoperatorsandothercorporateoligarchsmayabusetheirmonopolisticpowerstopreventfair,thegovernmentshouldstrengthenplanning,regulationandcoordinationforInternetofThingsdevelopmentsoastoeffectivelybalanceandharmonizetheinterestsofdifferentparties,encouragetheircooperation,,stabilizingqualityanden,Chinastillhasnounifiedstandards,integration,deploymentandmaintenanceandtodevelopemergingindustriesandalsoanintelligence-basedinfrastructureforChinato,,thegovernmentshouldmakeproperinvestmentatapropertimeorencouragethethreemajortelecomoperators,cableoperatorsandrelated,thegovernmentshoulduseinvestmentandothermeasurestobuildpublicoperatingandserviceplatformsandatthesametimeguideenterprisestomakeinvestmentinbuildingapplicationplatformsthatwillserverelevantindustries.ChengGuoqiangAgriculturewasoneofthemostdifficultissuesinthenegotiationforChinasentryintotheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)andoneofthe,theevaluationoftheimpactimposedonChineseagricultureduringthe10yearssinceChinasentryinineseagricultureinthepastdecade,weanalyzedandidentifiedthebasicexperiencegainedfromtheopeningupofChineseagricultureandtheissuescallingforattentionduringtheprocess,andputforththestrategicdirectionandpolicyoptio:Openingup,GrowthandStructuralChangeChinasentryintotheWTOandtheexpandedopening-upofChineseagri,inthepastdecade,Chinahascontinuedtopushforwardtheopening-upofagricultureintermsofscopeanddepth;activelybuiltupthecapacityformakingcoordinateduseofboththedomesticandforeignmarketsandresources;strivedtoimprovetheoverallquality,operationefficiencyandmarketcompetencyofagriculture;andprovidestrongsupportandguaranteeforthenationalfoodsecurity,thesupplyofmajorfarmproducts,thesteadyandrapidgrowthofthenationaleconomy,:ernofagricultureInthepastdecadesinceChinasaccessiontotheWTO,%,lessthanaquarteroftheworldaverageof62%,makingChinaoneofthecountrieswiththelowesttariffsforfarmproductsintheworld1;compliedwiththecommitmentsconcerningtariffquotaadministration,adoptedimportcontrolanddomesticmarketmeasuresonkeyfarmproductssuchasgrainsandcotton,aswellasmeansofagriculturalproductionsuchasfertilizers2;cancelledsubsidiesforfarmproductexpor%.Meanwhile,Chinahasactivelyencouragedtheagriculturalintroductionandtheutilizationofforeigninvestment,andlaunchedprogramsinintegrateddevelopment,processingandcirculationoffarmproductsandtechnologicalRD,whichhaveplayedapositiveroleinpromotingthedevelopmentofmodernagriculture,upgradingthestructureofthefarmproductprocessingindustry,ricultureandtheestablishmentofanopen,fairandreasonableframeworkforinternationalandbilateralagriculturalcooperation;exploredandimplementedthe"goingglobal",includingprivateones,areactiveinoverseasinvestment,andhavelaunchedagriculturaldevelopmentandcooperativeoperationinSoutheastAsia,AfricaandSouthAmerica,formingasustained,stableandr,soa,ChinahaspromotedbilateraltradeliberalizationwithASEANandNewZealand;fullyparticipatedintheDohaRoundnegotiationstofacilitatetheestabli,Chineseagriculturehasbasicallyintegratedintotheinternationaltradesystem,withitsopening-upbeingbroadenedanddeepened,rehensiveproductioncapacityimprovedcontinuouslyInthepasttenyearsaftertheaccessiontotheWTO,Chinahastakenactivemeasurestodealwiththeimpactoffiercemarketcompetition,frequenttradefrictions,theinternationalfinancialcrisisandtheextremelyvolatilemarketoffarmproducts;managedtoaddressthechallengesoftheriseofthecostsofagriculturalproduction,declineofcomparativeinterests,andfrequentnaturaldisasters;,%,1%%from1998to2001beforeChinasaccessiontotheWTO(Table1).Table1ChangeoftheChineseEconomicStructure(%)from1978to2010优乐体育网址

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    ByZhangQiXuHongqiang,ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationsofDRCResearchReportNo195,othesimplificationandharmonizationofinternational,enhancetradeefficiencyandproduceimmenseeconomicefficiency,tradefacilitationhasalwaysbeenanimportanttooladoptedactivelyby(WTO)hasnospecialagreementontradefacilitation,,tradefacilitationhasbeenincorporatedintothenegotiationsoftheDohaDe:cilitation;mentingbroaderplansfortradefacilitation-relatedtechnicalassistanceandabilitybuilding;,tradeandinvestmentfacilitationhasb,thetradetransactioncostbetweenallmemberswouldbecutby5%duringthe2002~2006periodandtradefacilitationwillaffectfourmajorareas:customsprocedures,standardsandunification,,theleadersofvariouscountriesjointlyputforwardtheActionPlanII,underwhichtheintra-regionaltradetransactioncostwouldbecutbyanother5%,theyexpressedinterestinwidertradefacilitationssuchastheimprovementofdomesticrulesandsystems,riouscountries,,theyincludethetradeingoods,thetradeinservices,tationinthefreetradearrangementsignedrespectivelybyChina,,JapanandSouthKoreaSofar,asHongKongandMacao,ChinahassignedfreetradeagreementswithASEAN,Chile,Pakistan,NewZealand,,,ChinahasjustconcludedinvestmentnegotiationswithASEANandsignedaninvestmentagreementinAugustthisyear,sFTAtradeingoodsincludedtheprovisionson"investment",andanadditionalprotocolwassignedinOctober2008,whichwoulddefinetherulesontheestablishmentoftheChina-PakistanInvestmentAreatopromoteinvestmentcooperation(withintheChina-PakistanFreeTradeArea,thisadditionalprotocolwouldgivepriorityconsiderationtotariffconcessionstothegoodsproducedintheHaier-RubaEconomicZoneandotherChina-Pakistaninvestmentareasandthegoodsthetwosideshaveinteresttoexport).China-NewZealandFreeTradeAgreementwasthefirstcomprehensivefreetradeagreementChinahassignedtocovertheareasoftradeingoods,,China,SingaporeandPeruhaveadoptedth优乐体育网址LiangYangchunXiaoQingwenByLiangYangchun,ResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyofDRCXiaoQingwen,EnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCResearchReportNo45,sIronandSteelIndustryandNecessityforRestructuringofIronandSteelIndustryinShandongProvinceChina,whichstoodatonly128milliontonsin2000,begantogrowatanannualrateofmorethan20%%,%in2008,%,itscrudesteeloutputreached626milliontons,%,itsurbanizationprocesswillgain,spercapitasteelconsumptionisfarbelowthelevelsoftheUnitedStates,Japan,Sossteelindustryasawholewillcontinuetogrow,willslideto5%~10%.Atanaverageannualgrowthrateof5%,srealGDPgrowthcontinuestobefastinthisperiod,itscrudesteeloutputislikelytoriseatanannualrateofmorethan5%.ThesteelindustryisanepitomeofChinasheavyindustryindustry,whichhasoveremphasizedscaleexpansioninrecentyears,,,,,,howShandongssteelindustrywillrestructureitselfandpursueahealthydevelopmentwill,,thatabout16%ofthee,,onlyabout20%ofproductioncapacitiesarelocatedincoastalareas,,t,nomajorgandtransformation,itisimperat,Shandongfactorinput,,Shandongssteelindustrymustadjustitsregionaldistribution,andmo,ShandongssteelindustrymustadjustitsproductstructuresothatthegeneralandbsironandsteelindustryAsShandongssteelindustrywasnotedforamonotonousproductstructureandanirrationalratiobetweenplatesandpipes,therelevantinstitutionsinShandongdesignedapreliminary,theShandongProvincialPeoplesGovernmentpromulgatedtheGuidelincitiesofthesteelenterprisesincoastalareaswillrisefrom18%in2006tomorethan50%,buildingalargehigh-end,theShandongProvincialPeoplesGovernmentissuedthePlanfortheAdjustmentandRejuvenationofShandongsSteelIndustry(2009~2011).Accordingtotheplan,theprovincescrudesteeloutputwillbecontrolledatabout50milliontonsby2011,theenterpriseswillbereorganized,theoutdatedproductioncapacitieswillbeeliminated,andtheShandongIronand,industrialdistributionwillfocusoncoastalareas,,itn,ShandongProvinceisactivelystrivingtobecomeapi,itisdesignedtoeliminateoutdatedproductio,theprovincess,it,coastalareaswillaccountformorethan40%oftheprovincesproductioncapacitiesandmorethan30%oftheprovince,itisdesignedto,thegroup,,theproductioncapacitiesofJinanIronandSteelCompanyandLaiwuIronandSteelCompanymustbesuppressed,,ShandongIronandSteelGrou,ShandongIronandSteelGroupCompanywil,QingdaoIronandSteelCompanymustberelocatedfrom,JinanIronandSteelCompanyandLaiwuIronandSteelCompanywillgraduallyrelocatetheirremainingproductioncapacitiestocoastalareas.

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